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A birthmark is usually-harmless irregularity on the skin which is present at birth or appears shortly after birth. While some birthmarks are not very noticeable or can resolve on their own over time, others have a more prominent appearance.
Birthmarks caused by excess skin pigment cells include moles, cafe-au-lait spots and Mongolian spots. Vascular (red) birthmarks include macular stains, hemangiomas and Port-wine stains.

What causes moles?
Some people are born with moles. Other moles appear over time. Sun exposure seems to play a role in the development of moles and may even play a role in the development of atypical, or dysplastic, moles.The role of heredity cannot be underemphasized. Many families have a type of mole known as dysplastic (atypical), which can be associated with a higher frequency of melanoma or skin cancer.
Moles
Moles, or pigmented nevi, are growths that are flesh-coloured, brown or black, appearing anywhere on the skin alone or in groups. They may be irregular in shape and flat, or raised and lumpy.

Hemangioma
This occurs when many new blood vessels grow in a specific area on the skin, causing lesions to develop within a few weeks after birth. It is a harmless tumour that is the most common in infancy.

Port-wine stain
These range from pale pink to deep wine-red in colour. They appear irregular, large and are caused by dilated blood vessels. Over time, they may become thick, or develop small ridges or bumps. It occurs in 0.3% of the population.
Macular stains
Macular stains, or salmon patches, are small blood vessels that are visible through the skin. They are commonly on the forehead, eyelids, upper lip, between the eyebrows and back of neck. Often, they fade as the infant grows.

Cafe-au-lait
These spots are light tan or brown, usually oval in shape – usually appearing at birth or early childhood.

Mongolian spots
They resemble bruises, often seen on the buttocks, lower back, flanks and shoulders, with wavy borders and irregular shape. The blue colour is caused by melanocytes deep under the skin.
Treatment: - Excision (cutting), with or without stitches
- Laser excision. More effective with no downtime.


Dermatoloy